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PostgreSQL11.2-中文手册.pdf

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Table of Contents
前言 ........................................................................ xxx
1. 何为PostgreSQL? .................................................... xxx
2. PostgreSQL简史 ...................................................... xxx
2.1. 伯克利的POSTGRES项目 ........................................ xxxi
2.2. Postgres95 .................................................. xxxi
2.3. PostgreSQL ................................................. xxxii
3. 约定 .............................................................. xxxii
4. 进一步的信息 ...................................................... xxxii
5. 缺陷报告指南 ..................................................... xxxiii
5.1. 标识缺陷 .................................................. xxxiii
5.2. 报告什么 .................................................. xxxiii
5.3. 向哪里报告缺陷 .............................................. xxxv
I. 教程 ...................................................................... 1
1. 从头开始 .............................................................. 3
1.1. 安装 ........................................................... 3
1.2. 架构基础 ....................................................... 3
1.3. 创建一个数据库 ................................................. 3
1.4. 访问数据库 ..................................................... 5
2. SQL语言 ............................................................... 7
2.1. 引言 ........................................................... 7
2.2. 概念 ........................................................... 7
2.3. 创建一个新表 ................................................... 7
2.4. 在表中增加行 ................................................... 8
2.5. 查询一个表 ..................................................... 9
2.6. 在表之间连接 .................................................. 11
2.7. 聚集函数 ...................................................... 13
2.8. 更新 .......................................................... 14
2.9. 删除 .......................................................... 14
3. 高级特性 ............................................................. 16
3.1. 简介 .......................................................... 16
3.2. 视图 .......................................................... 16
3.3. 外键 .......................................................... 16
3.4. 事务 .......................................................... 17
3.5. 窗口函数 ...................................................... 18
3.6. 继承 .......................................................... 21
3.7. 小结 .......................................................... 22
II. SQL 语言 ................................................................ 23
4. SQL语法 .............................................................. 31
4.1. 词法结构 ...................................................... 31
4.2. 值表达式 ...................................................... 39
4.3. 调用函数 ...................................................... 52
5. 数据定义 ............................................................. 55
5.1. 表基础 ........................................................ 55
5.2. 默认值 ........................................................ 56
5.3. 约束 .......................................................... 57
5.4. 系统列 ........................................................ 63
5.5. 修改表 ........................................................ 64
5.6. 权限 .......................................................... 67
5.7. 行安全性策略 .................................................. 67
5.8. 模式 .......................................................... 73
5.9. 继承 .......................................................... 77
5.10. 表分区 ....................................................... 80
5.11. 外部数据 ..................................................... 90
5.12. 其他数据库对象 ............................................... 91
5.13. 依赖跟踪 ..................................................... 91
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PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
6. 数据操纵 ............................................................. 93
6.1. 插入数据 ...................................................... 93
6.2. 更新数据 ...................................................... 94
6.3. 删除数据 ...................................................... 95
6.4. 从修改的行中返回数据 .......................................... 95
7. 查询 ................................................................. 97
7.1. 概述 .......................................................... 97
7.2. 表表达式 ...................................................... 97
7.3. 选择列表 ..................................................... 111
7.4. 组合查询 ..................................................... 112
7.5. 行排序 ....................................................... 113
7.6. LIMIT和OFFSET ................................................ 114
7.7. VALUES列表 ................................................... 114
7.8. WITH查询(公共表表达式) ..................................... 115
8. 数据类型 ............................................................ 121
8.1. 数字类型 ..................................................... 122
8.2. 货币类型 ..................................................... 126
8.3. 字符类型 ..................................................... 127
8.4. 二进制数据类型 ............................................... 129
8.5. 日期/时间类型 ................................................ 131
8.6. 布尔类型 ..................................................... 139
8.7. 枚举类型 ..................................................... 140
8.8. 几何类型 ..................................................... 142
8.9. 网络地址类型 ................................................. 144
8.10. 位串类型 .................................................... 147
8.11. 文本搜索类型 ................................................ 147
8.12. UUID类型 .................................................... 150
8.13. XML类型 ..................................................... 150
8.14. JSON 类型 ................................................... 152
8.15. 数组 ........................................................ 158
8.16. 组合类型 .................................................... 167
8.17. 范围类型 .................................................... 173
8.18. 域类型 ...................................................... 178
8.19. 对象标识符类型 .............................................. 178
8.20. pg_lsn 类型 ................................................. 180
8.21. 伪类型 ...................................................... 180
9. 函数和操作符 ........................................................ 182
9.1. 逻辑操作符 ................................................... 182
9.2. 比较函数和操作符 ............................................. 182
9.3. 数学函数和操作符 ............................................. 185
9.4. 字符串函数和操作符 ........................................... 188
9.5. 二进制串函数和操作符 ......................................... 201
9.6. 位串函数和操作符 ............................................. 203
9.7. 模式匹配 ..................................................... 203
9.8. 数据类型格式化函数 ........................................... 217
9.9. 时间/日期函数和操作符 ........................................ 224
9.10. 枚举支持函数 ................................................ 236
9.11. 几何函数和操作符 ............................................ 237
9.12. 网络地址函数和操作符 ........................................ 240
9.13. 文本搜索函数和操作符 ........................................ 242
9.14. XML 函数 .................................................... 248
9.15. JSON 函数和操作符 ........................................... 261
9.16. 序列操作函数 ................................................ 269
9.17. 条件表达式 .................................................. 271
9.18. 数组函数和操作符 ............................................ 274
9.19. 范围函数和操作符 ............................................ 277
9.20. 聚集函数 .................................................... 278
9.21. 窗口函数 .................................................... 284
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PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
9.22. 子查询表达式 ................................................ 286
9.23. 行和数组比较 ................................................ 288
9.24. 集合返回函数 ................................................ 291
9.25. 系统信息函数 ................................................ 294
9.26. 系统管理函数 ................................................ 309
9.27. 触发器函数 .................................................. 324
9.28. 事件触发器函数 .............................................. 324
10. 类型转换 ........................................................... 328
10.1. 概述 ........................................................ 328
10.2. 操作符 ...................................................... 329
10.3. 函数 ........................................................ 332
10.4. 值存储 ...................................................... 336
10.5. UNION、CASE和相关结构 ....................................... 337
10.6. SELECT的输出列 .............................................. 338
11. 索引 ............................................................... 340
11.1. 简介 ........................................................ 340
11.2. 索引类型 .................................................... 341
11.3. 多列索引 .................................................... 342
11.4. 索引和ORDER BY .............................................. 343
11.5. 组合多个索引 ................................................ 344
11.6. 唯一索引 .................................................... 344
11.7. 表达式索引 .................................................. 345
11.8. 部分索引 .................................................... 345
11.9. 只用索引的扫描和覆盖索引 .................................... 348
11.10. 操作符类和操作符族 ......................................... 350
11.11. 索引和排序规则 ............................................. 351
11.12. 检查索引使用 ............................................... 351
12. 全文搜索 ........................................................... 353
12.1. 介绍 ........................................................ 353
12.2. 表和索引 .................................................... 356
12.3. 空值文本搜索 ................................................ 358
12.4. 额外特性 .................................................... 365
12.5. 解析器 ...................................................... 369
12.6. 词典 ........................................................ 371
12.7. 配置例子 .................................................... 380
12.8. 测试和调试文本搜索 .......................................... 381
12.9. GIN 和 GiST 索引类型 ....................................... 385
12.10. psql支持 ................................................... 386
12.11. 限制 ....................................................... 388
13. 并发控制 ........................................................... 390
13.1. 介绍 ........................................................ 390
13.2. 事务隔离 .................................................... 390
13.3. 显式锁定 .................................................... 395
13.4. 应用级别的数据完整性检查 .................................... 399
13.5. 提醒 ........................................................ 401
13.6. 锁定和索引 .................................................. 401
14. 性能提示 ........................................................... 402
14.1. 使用EXPLAIN ................................................. 402
14.2. 规划器使用的统计信息 ........................................ 412
14.3. 用显式JOIN子句控制规划器 .................................... 415
14.4. 填充一个数据库 .............................................. 417
14.5. 非持久设置 .................................................. 419
15. 并行查询 ........................................................... 421
15.1. 并行查询如何工作 ............................................ 421
15.2. 何时会用到并行查询? ........................................ 422
15.3. 并行计划 .................................................... 422
15.4. 并行安全性 .................................................. 424
III. 服务器管理 ............................................................. 426
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PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
16. 从源代码安装 ....................................................... 432
16.1. 简单版 ...................................................... 432
16.2. 要求 ........................................................ 432
16.3. 获取源码 .................................................... 433
16.4. 安装过程 .................................................... 434
16.5. 安装后设置 .................................................. 445
16.6. 平台支持 .................................................... 446
16.7. 平台相关的说明 .............................................. 446
17. 在Windows上从源代码安装 ............................................ 454
17.1. 使用Visual C  或Microsoft Windows SDK构建 ................... 454
18. 服务器设置和操作 ................................................... 459
18.1. PostgreSQL用户账户 .......................................... 459
18.2. 创建一个数据库集簇 .......................................... 459
18.3. 启动数据库服务器 ............................................ 461
18.4. 管理内核资源 ................................................ 464
18.5. 关闭服务器 .................................................. 472
18.6. 升级一个PostgreSQL集簇 ...................................... 473
18.7. 阻止服务器欺骗 .............................................. 475
18.8. 加密选项 .................................................... 475
18.9. 用 SSL 进行安全的 TCP/IP 连接 .............................. 476
18.10. 使用SSH隧道的安全 TCP/IP 连接 .............................. 480
18.11. 在Windows上注册Event Log ................................... 480
19. 服务器配置 ......................................................... 482
19.1. 设置参数 .................................................... 482
19.2. 文件位置 .................................................... 485
19.3. 连接和认证 .................................................. 486
19.4. 资源消耗 .................................................... 491
19.5. 预写式日志 .................................................. 497
19.6. 复制 ........................................................ 501
19.7. 查询规划 .................................................... 505
19.8. 错误报告和日志 .............................................. 511
19.9. 运行时统计数据 .............................................. 520
19.10. 自动清理 ................................................... 521
19.11. 客户端连接默认值 ........................................... 523
19.12. 锁管理 ..................................................... 531
19.13. 版本和平台兼容性 ........................................... 531
19.14. 错误处理 ................................................... 533
19.15. 预置选项 ................................................... 534
19.16. 自定义选项 ................................................. 535
19.17. 开发者选项 ................................................. 535
19.18. 短选项 ..................................................... 538
20. 客户端认证 ......................................................... 540
20.1. pg_hba.conf文件 ............................................. 540
20.2. 用户名映射 .................................................. 546
20.3. 认证方法 .................................................... 547
20.4. 信任认证 .................................................... 547
20.5. 口令认证 .................................................... 548
20.6. GSSAPI 认证 ................................................. 548
20.7. SSPI 认证 ................................................... 550
20.8. Ident 认证 .................................................. 551
20.9. Peer 认证 ................................................... 551
20.10. LDAP 认证 .................................................. 551
20.11. RADIUS 认证 ................................................ 554
20.12. 证书认证 ................................................... 555
20.13. PAM 认证 ................................................... 555
20.14. BSD 认证 ................................................... 555
20.15. 认证问题 ................................................... 556
21. 数据库角色 ......................................................... 557
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PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
21.1. 数据库角色 .................................................. 557
21.2. 角色属性 .................................................... 558
21.3. 角色成员关系 ................................................ 559
21.4. 删除角色 .................................................... 560
21.5. 默认角色 .................................................... 561
21.6. 函数和触发器安全性 .......................................... 562
22. 管理数据库 ......................................................... 563
22.1. 概述 ........................................................ 563
22.2. 创建一个数据库 .............................................. 563
22.3. 模板数据库 .................................................. 564
22.4. 数据库配置 .................................................. 565
22.5. 销毁一个数据库 .............................................. 565
22.6. 表空间 ...................................................... 566
23. 本地化 ............................................................. 568
23.1. 区域支持 .................................................... 568
23.2. 排序规则支持 ................................................ 570
23.3. 字符集支持 .................................................. 575
24. 日常数据库维护工作 ................................................. 582
24.1. 日常清理 .................................................... 582
24.2. 日常重建索引 ................................................ 588
24.3. 日志文件维护 ................................................ 588
25. 备份和恢复 ......................................................... 590
25.1. SQL转储 ..................................................... 590
25.2. 文件系统级别备份 ............................................ 593
25.3. 连续归档和时间点恢复(PITR) ................................ 593
26. 高可用、负载均衡和复制 ............................................. 604
26.1. 不同方案的比较 .............................................. 604
26.2. 日志传送后备服务器 .......................................... 607
26.3. 故障转移 .................................................... 614
26.4. 日志传送的替代方法 .......................................... 615
26.5. 热备 ........................................................ 616
27. 恢复配置 ........................................................... 623
27.1. 归档恢复设置 ................................................ 623
27.2. 恢复目标设置 ................................................ 624
27.3. 后备服务器设置 .............................................. 625
28. 监控数据库活动 ..................................................... 627
28.1. 标准 Unix 工具 ............................................. 627
28.2. 统计收集器 .................................................. 628
28.3. 查看锁 ...................................................... 656
28.4. 进度报告 .................................................... 657
28.5. 动态追踪 .................................................... 658
29. 监控磁盘使用 ....................................................... 668
29.1. 判断磁盘用量 ................................................ 668
29.2. 磁盘满失败 .................................................. 669
30. 可靠性和预写式日志 ................................................. 670
30.1. 可靠性 ...................................................... 670
30.2. 预写式日志(WAL) ........................................... 671
30.3. 异步提交 .................................................... 672
30.4. WAL配置 ..................................................... 673
30.5. WAL内部 ..................................................... 675
31. 逻辑复制 ........................................................... 677
31.1. Publication(发布) ......................................... 677
31.2. 订阅 ........................................................ 678
31.3. 冲突 ........................................................ 679
31.4. 限制 ........................................................ 679
31.5. 架构 ........................................................ 679
31.6. 监控 ........................................................ 680
31.7. 安全性 ...................................................... 680
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PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
31.8. 配置设置 .................................................... 680
31.9. 快速设置 .................................................... 681
32. 即时编译(JIT) .................................................... 682
32.1. 什么是JIT编译? ............................................. 682
32.2. 什么时候会用JIT? ........................................... 682
32.3. 配置 ........................................................ 683
32.4. 可扩展性 .................................................... 684
33. 回归测试 ........................................................... 685
33.1. 运行测试 .................................................... 685
33.2. 测试评估 .................................................... 688
33.3. 变体比较文件 ................................................ 690
33.4. TAP 测试 .................................................... 691
33.5. 测试覆盖检查 ................................................ 691
IV. 客户端接口 .............................................................. 692
34. libpq - C 库 ...................................................... 697
34.1. 数据库连接控制函数 .......................................... 697
34.2. 连接状态函数 ................................................ 709
34.3. 命令执行函数 ................................................ 714
34.4. 异步命令处理 ................................................ 728
34.5. 一行一行地检索查询结果 ...................................... 732
34.6. 取消进行中的查询 ............................................ 732
34.7. 快速路径接口 ................................................ 733
34.8. 异步提示 .................................................... 734
34.9. COPY命令相关的函数 .......................................... 735
34.10. 控制函数 ................................................... 739
34.11. 杂项函数 ................................................... 740
34.12. 通知处理 ................................................... 743
34.13. 事件系统 ................................................... 744
34.14. 环境变量 ................................................... 750
34.15. 口令文件 ................................................... 751
34.16. 连接服务文件 ............................................... 752
34.17. 连接参数的 LDAP 查找 ...................................... 752
34.18. SSL 支持 ................................................... 753
34.19. 在线程化程序中的行为 ....................................... 756
34.20. 编译 libpq 程序 ........................................... 757
34.21. 例子程序 ................................................... 758
35. 大对象 ............................................................. 769
35.1. 简介 ........................................................ 769
35.2. 实现特性 .................................................... 769
35.3. 客户端接口 .................................................. 769
35.4. 服务器端函数 ................................................ 773
35.5. 例子程序 .................................................... 774
36. ECPG - C 中的嵌入式 SQL ........................................... 780
36.1. 概念 ........................................................ 780
36.2. 管理数据库连接 .............................................. 780
36.3. 运行 SQL 命令 .............................................. 783
36.4. 使用主变量 .................................................. 786
36.5. 动态 SQL .................................................... 799
36.6. pgtypes 库 .................................................. 800
36.7. 使用描述符区域 .............................................. 813
36.8. 错误处理 .................................................... 826
36.9. 预处理器指令 ................................................ 832
36.10. 处理嵌入式 SQL 程序 ....................................... 834
36.11. 库函数 ..................................................... 835
36.12. 大对象 ..................................................... 836
36.13. C   应用 ................................................... 837
36.14. 嵌入式 SQL 命令 ........................................... 841
36.15. Informix兼容模式 ........................................... 863
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PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
36.16. 内部 ....................................................... 877
37. 信息模式 ........................................................... 880
37.1. 模式 ........................................................ 880
37.2. 数据类型 .................................................... 880
37.3. information_schema_catalog_name ............................. 881
37.4. administrable_role_authorizations ........................... 881
37.5. applicable_roles ............................................ 881
37.6. attributes .................................................. 882
37.7. character_sets .............................................. 884
37.8. check_constraint_routine_usage .............................. 885
37.9. check_constraints ........................................... 885
37.10. collations ................................................. 886
37.11. collation_character_set_applicability ...................... 886
37.12. column_domain_usage ........................................ 886
37.13. column_options ............................................. 887
37.14. column_privileges .......................................... 887
37.15. column_udt_usage ........................................... 888
37.16. columns .................................................... 888
37.17. constraint_column_usage .................................... 892
37.18. constraint_table_usage ..................................... 892
37.19. data_type_privileges ....................................... 893
37.20. domain_constraints ......................................... 893
37.21. domain_udt_usage ........................................... 894
37.22. domains .................................................... 894
37.23. element_types .............................................. 896
37.24. enabled_roles .............................................. 898
37.25. foreign_data_wrapper_options ............................... 899
37.26. foreign_data_wrappers ...................................... 899
37.27. foreign_server_options ..................................... 899
37.28. foreign_servers ............................................ 900
37.29. foreign_table_options ...................................... 900
37.30. foreign_tables ............................................. 900
37.31. key_column_usage ........................................... 901
37.32. parameters ................................................. 901
37.33. referential_constraints .................................... 903
37.34. role_column_grants ......................................... 904
37.35. role_routine_grants ........................................ 904
37.36. role_table_grants .......................................... 905
37.37. role_udt_grants ............................................ 906
37.38. role_usage_grants .......................................... 906
37.39. routine_privileges ......................................... 906
37.40. routines ................................................... 907
37.41. schemata ................................................... 912
37.42. sequences .................................................. 912
37.43. sql_features ............................................... 913
37.44. sql_implementation_info .................................... 914
37.45. sql_languages .............................................. 914
37.46. sql_packages ............................................... 915
37.47. sql_parts .................................................. 915
37.48. sql_sizing ................................................. 915
37.49. sql_sizing_profiles ........................................ 916
37.50. table_constraints .......................................... 916
37.51. table_privileges ........................................... 917
37.52. tables ..................................................... 917
37.53. transforms ................................................. 918
37.54. triggered_update_columns ................................... 919
37.55. triggers ................................................... 919
37.56. udt_privileges ............................................. 920
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PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
37.57. usage_privileges ........................................... 921
37.58. user_defined_types ......................................... 921
37.59. user_mapping_options ....................................... 923
37.60. user_mappings .............................................. 923
37.61. view_column_usage .......................................... 924
37.62. view_routine_usage ......................................... 924
37.63. view_table_usage ........................................... 925
37.64. views ...................................................... 925
V. 服务器编程 ............................................................... 927
38. 扩展 SQL .......................................................... 932
38.1. 扩展性如何工作 .............................................. 932
38.2. PostgreSQL类型系统 .......................................... 932
38.3. 用户定义的函数 .............................................. 933
38.4. 用户定义的过程 .............................................. 934
38.5. 查询语言(SQL)函数 ......................................... 934
38.6. 函数重载 .................................................... 948
38.7. 函数易变性分类 .............................................. 949
38.8. 过程语言函数 ................................................ 950
38.9. 内部函数 .................................................... 950
38.10. C 语言函数 ................................................. 951
38.11. 用户定义的聚集 ............................................. 970
38.12. 用户定义的类型 ............................................. 976
38.13. 用户定义的操作符 ........................................... 980
38.14. 操作符优化信息 ............................................. 980
38.15. 索引的接口扩展 ............................................. 984
38.16. 打包相关对象到一个扩展中 ................................... 995
38.17. 扩展的构建基础设施 ........................................ 1001
39. 触发器 ............................................................ 1005
39.1. 触发器行为概述 ............................................. 1005
39.2. 数据改变的可见性 ........................................... 1007
39.3. 用 C 编写触发器函数 ....................................... 1007
39.4. 一个完整的触发器实例 ....................................... 1010
40. 事件触发器 ........................................................ 1014
40.1. 事件触发器行为总览 ......................................... 1014
40.2. 事件触发器触发矩阵 ......................................... 1014
40.3. 用 C 编写事件触发器函数 .................................... 1018
40.4. 一个完整的事件触发器例子 ................................... 1019
40.5. 一个表重写事件触发器例子 ................................... 1020
41. 规则系统 .......................................................... 1022
41.1. 查询树 ..................................................... 1022
41.2. 视图和规则系统 ............................................. 1023
41.3. 物化视图 ................................................... 1030
41.4. INSERT、UPDATE和DELETE上的规则 ............................. 1033
41.5. 规则和权限 ................................................. 1043
41.6. 规则和命令状态 ............................................. 1044
41.7. 规则 vs 触发器 ............................................ 1045
42. 过程语言 .......................................................... 1048
42.1. 安装过程语言 ............................................... 1048
43. PL/pgSQL - SQL过程语言 ........................................... 1050
43.1. 综述 ....................................................... 1050
43.2. PL/pgSQL的结构 ............................................. 1051
43.3. 声明 ....................................................... 1052
43.4. 表达式 ..................................................... 1058
43.5. 基本语句 ................................................... 1058
43.6. 控制结构 ................................................... 1065
43.7. 游标 ....................................................... 1079
43.8. 事务管理 ................................................... 1084
43.9. 错误和消息 ................................................. 1085
x
PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
43.10. 触发器函数 ................................................ 1088
43.11. PL/pgSQL的内部 ............................................ 1096
43.12. PL/pgSQL开发提示 .......................................... 1099
43.13. 从Oracle PL/SQL 移植 ..................................... 1101
44. PL/Tcl - Tcl 过程语言 ............................................ 1110
44.1. 概述 ....................................................... 1110
44.2. PL/Tcl 函数和参数 .......................................... 1110
44.3. PL/Tcl 中的数据值 .......................................... 1112
44.4. PL/Tcl 中的全局数据 ........................................ 1112
44.5. 从 PL/Tcl 访问数据库 ...................................... 1113
44.6. PL/Tcl 中的触发器函数 ...................................... 1115
44.7. PL/Tcl 中的事件触发器函数 .................................. 1116
44.8. PL/Tcl 中的错误处理 ........................................ 1117
44.9. PL/Tcl中的显式子事务 ....................................... 1118
44.10. 事务管理 .................................................. 1119
44.11. PL/Tcl配置 ................................................ 1119
44.12. Tcl 过程名 ................................................ 1120
45. PL/Perl - Perl 过程语言 .......................................... 1121
45.1. PL/Perl 函数和参数 ......................................... 1121
45.2. PL/Perl 中的数据值 ......................................... 1125
45.3. 内建函数 ................................................... 1125
45.4. PL/Perl 中的全局值 ......................................... 1130
45.5. 可信的和不可信的 PL/Perl ................................... 1131
45.6. PL/Perl 触发器 ............................................. 1132
45.7. PL/Perl 事件触发器 ......................................... 1133
45.8. PL/Perl 下面的东西 ......................................... 1134
46. PL/Python - Python 过程语言 ...................................... 1136
46.1. Python 2 vs. Python 3 ..................................... 1136
46.2. PL/Python 函数 ............................................. 1137
46.3. 数据值 ..................................................... 1138
46.4. 共享数据 ................................................... 1143
46.5. 匿名代码块 ................................................. 1143
46.6. 触发器函数 ................................................. 1143
46.7. 数据库访问 ................................................. 1144
46.8. 显式子事务 ................................................. 1148
46.9. 事务管理 ................................................... 1149
46.10. 实用函数 .................................................. 1150
46.11. 环境变量 .................................................. 1151
47. 服务器编程接口 .................................................... 1152
47.1. 接口函数 ................................................... 1152
47.2. 接口支持函数 ............................................... 1185
47.3. 内存管理 ................................................... 1194
47.4. 事务管理 ................................................... 1204
47.5. 数据改变的可见性 ........................................... 1207
47.6. 例子 ....................................................... 1207
48. 后台工作者进程 .................................................... 1211
49. 逻辑解码 .......................................................... 1214
49.1. 逻辑解码的例子 ............................................. 1214
49.2. 逻辑解码概念 ............................................... 1216
49.3. 流复制协议接口 ............................................. 1217
49.4. 逻辑解码的 SQL 接口 ....................................... 1217
49.5. 与逻辑解码相关的系统目录 ................................... 1217
49.6. 逻辑解码输出插件 ........................................... 1218
49.7. 逻辑解码输出写入器 ......................................... 1221
49.8. 逻辑解码的同步复制支持 ..................................... 1221
50. 复制进度追踪 ...................................................... 1222
VI. 参考 ................................................................... 1223
I. SQL 命令 .......................................................... 1228
xi
PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
ABORT ............................................................ 1232
ALTER AGGREGATE .................................................. 1233
ALTER COLLATION .................................................. 1235
ALTER CONVERSION ................................................. 1237
ALTER DATABASE ................................................... 1238
ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES ......................................... 1240
ALTER DOMAIN ..................................................... 1243
ALTER EVENT TRIGGER .............................................. 1246
ALTER EXTENSION .................................................. 1247
ALTER FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER ...................................... 1250
ALTER FOREIGN TABLE .............................................. 1252
ALTER FUNCTION ................................................... 1257
ALTER GROUP ...................................................... 1260
ALTER INDEX ...................................................... 1262
ALTER LANGUAGE ................................................... 1265
ALTER LARGE OBJECT ............................................... 1266
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW .......................................... 1267
ALTER OPERATOR ................................................... 1269
ALTER OPERATOR CLASS ............................................. 1271
ALTER OPERATOR FAMILY ............................................ 1272
ALTER POLICY ..................................................... 1276
ALTER PROCEDURE .................................................. 1278
ALTER PUBLICATION ................................................ 1281
ALTER ROLE ....................................................... 1283
ALTER ROUTINE .................................................... 1287
ALTER RULE ....................................................... 1288
ALTER SCHEMA ..................................................... 1289
ALTER SEQUENCE ................................................... 1290
ALTER SERVER ..................................................... 1293
ALTER STATISTICS ................................................. 1295
ALTER SUBSCRIPTION ............................................... 1296
ALTER SYSTEM ..................................................... 1298
ALTER TABLE ...................................................... 1300
ALTER TABLESPACE ................................................. 1314
ALTER TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATION .................................. 1316
ALTER TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARY ..................................... 1318
ALTER TEXT SEARCH PARSER ........................................ 1320
ALTER TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATE ...................................... 1321
ALTER TRIGGER .................................................... 1322
ALTER TYPE ....................................................... 1324
ALTER USER ....................................................... 1327
ALTER USER MAPPING ............................................... 1328
ALTER VIEW ....................................................... 1329
ANALYZE .......................................................... 1331
BEGIN ............................................................ 1333
CALL ............................................................. 1335
CHECKPOINT ....................................................... 1336
CLOSE ............................................................ 1337
CLUSTER .......................................................... 1338
COMMENT .......................................................... 1340
COMMIT ........................................................... 1344
COMMIT PREPARED .................................................. 1345
COPY ............................................................. 1346
CREATE ACCESS METHOD ............................................. 1355
CREATE AGGREGATE ................................................. 1356
CREATE CAST ...................................................... 1363
CREATE COLLATION ................................................. 1367
CREATE CONVERSION ................................................ 1369
xii
PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
CREATE DATABASE .................................................. 1371
CREATE DOMAIN .................................................... 1374
CREATE EVENT TRIGGER ............................................. 1377
CREATE EXTENSION ................................................. 1379
CREATE FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER ..................................... 1381
CREATE FOREIGN TABLE ............................................. 1383
CREATE FUNCTION .................................................. 1387
CREATE GROUP ..................................................... 1394
CREATE INDEX ..................................................... 1395
CREATE LANGUAGE .................................................. 1402
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW ......................................... 1405
CREATE OPERATOR .................................................. 1407
CREATE OPERATOR CLASS ............................................ 1410
CREATE OPERATOR FAMILY ........................................... 1413
CREATE POLICY .................................................... 1414
CREATE PROCEDURE ................................................. 1419
CREATE PUBLICATION ............................................... 1422
CREATE ROLE ...................................................... 1424
CREATE RULE ...................................................... 1428
CREATE SCHEMA .................................................... 1431
CREATE SEQUENCE .................................................. 1433
CREATE SERVER .................................................... 1436
CREATE STATISTICS ................................................ 1438
CREATE SUBSCRIPTION .............................................. 1440
CREATE TABLE ..................................................... 1443
CREATE TABLE AS .................................................. 1462
CREATE TABLESPACE ................................................ 1465
CREATE TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATION ................................. 1467
CREATE TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARY .................................... 1468
CREATE TEXT SEARCH PARSER ....................................... 1470
CREATE TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATE ..................................... 1472
CREATE TRANSFORM ................................................. 1473
CREATE TRIGGER ................................................... 1475
CREATE TYPE ...................................................... 1481
CREATE USER ...................................................... 1489
CREATE USER MAPPING .............................................. 1490
CREATE VIEW ...................................................... 1491
DEALLOCATE ....................................................... 1496
DECLARE .......................................................... 1497
DELETE ........................................................... 1500
DISCARD .......................................................... 1503
DO ............................................................... 1504
DROP ACCESS METHOD ............................................... 1506
DROP AGGREGATE ................................................... 1507
DROP CAST ........................................................ 1509
DROP COLLATION ................................................... 1510
DROP CONVERSION .................................................. 1511
DROP DATABASE .................................................... 1512
DROP DOMAIN ...................................................... 1513
DROP EVENT TRIGGER ............................................... 1514
DROP EXTENSION ................................................... 1515
DROP FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER ....................................... 1516
DROP FOREIGN TABLE ............................................... 1517
DROP FUNCTION .................................................... 1518
DROP GROUP ....................................................... 1520
DROP INDEX ....................................................... 1521
DROP LANGUAGE .................................................... 1523
DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW ........................................... 1524
xiii
PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
DROP OPERATOR .................................................... 1525
DROP OPERATOR CLASS .............................................. 1527
DROP OPERATOR FAMILY ............................................. 1529
DROP OWNED ....................................................... 1531
DROP POLICY ...................................................... 1532
DROP PROCEDURE ................................................... 1533
DROP PUBLICATION ................................................. 1535
DROP ROLE ........................................................ 1536
DROP ROUTINE ..................................................... 1537
DROP RULE ........................................................ 1538
DROP SCHEMA ...................................................... 1539
DROP SEQUENCE .................................................... 1540
DROP SERVER ...................................................... 1541
DROP STATISTICS .................................................. 1542
DROP SUBSCRIPTION ................................................ 1543
DROP TABLE ....................................................... 1544
DROP TABLESPACE .................................................. 1545
DROP TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATION ................................... 1546
DROP TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARY ..................................... 1547
DROP TEXT SEARCH PARSER ......................................... 1548
DROP TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATE ....................................... 1549
DROP TRANSFORM ................................................... 1550
DROP TRIGGER ..................................................... 1551
DROP TYPE ........................................................ 1552
DROP USER ........................................................ 1553
DROP USER MAPPING ................................................ 1554
DROP VIEW ........................................................ 1555
END .............................................................. 1556
EXECUTE .......................................................... 1557
EXPLAIN .......................................................... 1558
FETCH ............................................................ 1563
GRANT ............................................................ 1567
IMPORT FOREIGN SCHEMA ............................................ 1574
INSERT ........................................................... 1576
LISTEN ........................................................... 1583
LOAD ............................................................. 1585
LOCK ............................................................. 1586
MOVE ............................................................. 1589
NOTIFY ........................................................... 1591
PREPARE .......................................................... 1593
PREPARE TRANSACTION .............................................. 1595
REASSIGN OWNED ................................................... 1597
REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW ........................................ 1598
REINDEX .......................................................... 1600
RELEASE SAVEPOINT ................................................ 1603
RESET ............................................................ 1604
REVOKE ........................................................... 1605
ROLLBACK ......................................................... 1609
ROLLBACK PREPARED ................................................ 1610
ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT ............................................ 1611
SAVEPOINT ........................................................ 1613
SECURITY LABEL ................................................... 1615
SELECT ........................................................... 1618
SELECT INTO ...................................................... 1636
SET .............................................................. 1638
SET CONSTRAINTS .................................................. 1641
SET ROLE ......................................................... 1642
SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION ........................................ 1644
xiv
PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
SET TRANSACTION .................................................. 1646
SHOW ............................................................. 1649
START TRANSACTION ................................................ 1651
TRUNCATE ......................................................... 1652
UNLISTEN ......................................................... 1654
UPDATE ........................................................... 1656
VACUUM ........................................................... 1660
VALUES ........................................................... 1663
II. PostgreSQL 客户端应用 ............................................. 1666
clusterdb ........................................................ 1667
createdb ......................................................... 1670
createuser ....................................................... 1673
dropdb ........................................................... 1677
dropuser ......................................................... 1680
ecpg ............................................................. 1683
pg_basebackup .................................................... 1685
pgbench .......................................................... 1692
pg_config ........................................................ 1706
pg_dump .......................................................... 1709
pg_dumpall ....................................................... 1721
pg_isready ....................................................... 1727
pg_receivewal .................................................... 1729
pg_recvlogical ................................................... 1733
pg_restore ....................................................... 1737
psql ............................................................. 1745
reindexdb ........................................................ 1781
vacuumdb ......................................................... 1784
III. PostgreSQL 服务器应用 ............................................ 1788
initdb ........................................................... 1789
pg_archivecleanup ................................................ 1793
pg_controldata ................................................... 1795
pg_ctl ........................................................... 1796
pg_resetwal ...................................................... 1801
pg_rewind ........................................................ 1804
pg_test_fsync .................................................... 1807
pg_test_timing ................................................... 1808
pg_upgrade ....................................................... 1811
pg_verify_checksums .............................................. 1818
pg_waldump ....................................................... 1819
postgres ......................................................... 1821
postmaster ....................................................... 1828
VII. 内部 .................................................................. 1829
51. PostgreSQL内部概述 ................................................ 1835
51.1. 一个查询的路径 ............................................. 1835
51.2. 连接如何建立 ............................................... 1835
51.3. 分析器阶段 ................................................. 1836
51.4. PostgreSQL规则系统 ......................................... 1836
51.5. 规划器/优化器 .............................................. 1837
51.6. 执行器 ..................................................... 1838
52. 系统目录 .......................................................... 1839
52.1. 概述 ....................................................... 1839
52.2. pg_aggregate ............................................... 1840
52.3. pg_am ...................................................... 1842
52.4. pg_amop .................................................... 1843
52.5. pg_amproc .................................................. 1844
52.6. pg_attrdef ................................................. 1844
52.7. pg_attribute ............................................... 1845
52.8. pg_authid .................................................. 1847
xv
PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
52.9. pg_auth_members ............................................ 1848
52.10. pg_cast ................................................... 1849
52.11. pg_class .................................................. 1850
52.12. pg_collation .............................................. 1853
52.13. pg_constraint ............................................. 1854
52.14. pg_conversion ............................................. 1856
52.15. pg_database ............................................... 1857
52.16. pg_db_role_setting ........................................ 1858
52.17. pg_default_acl ............................................ 1859
52.18. pg_depend ................................................. 1859
52.19. pg_description ............................................ 1861
52.20. pg_enum ................................................... 1861
52.21. pg_event_trigger .......................................... 1862
52.22. pg_extension .............................................. 1862
52.23. pg_foreign_data_wrapper ................................... 1863
52.24. pg_foreign_server ......................................... 1863
52.25. pg_foreign_table .......................................... 1864
52.26. pg_index .................................................. 1864
52.27. pg_inherits ............................................... 1866
52.28. pg_init_privs ............................................. 1867
52.29. pg_language ............................................... 1867
52.30. pg_largeobject ............................................ 1868
52.31. pg_largeobject_metadata ................................... 1869
52.32. pg_namespace .............................................. 1869
52.33. pg_opclass ................................................ 1869
52.34. pg_operator ............................................... 1870
52.35. pg_opfamily ............................................... 1871
52.36. pg_partitioned_table ...................................... 1871
52.37. pg_pltemplate ............................................. 1872
52.38. pg_policy ................................................. 1873
52.39. pg_proc ................................................... 1874
52.40. pg_publication ............................................ 1877
52.41. pg_publication_rel ........................................ 1877
52.42. pg_range .................................................. 1878
52.43. pg_replication_origin ..................................... 1878
52.44. pg_rewrite ................................................ 1878
52.45. pg_seclabel ............................................... 1879
52.46. pg_sequence ............................................... 1880
52.47. pg_shdepend ............................................... 1880
52.48. pg_shdescription .......................................... 1881
52.49. pg_shseclabel ............................................. 1882
52.50. pg_statistic .............................................. 1882
52.51. pg_statistic_ext .......................................... 1883
52.52. pg_subscription ........................................... 1884
52.53. pg_subscription_rel ....................................... 1885
52.54. pg_tablespace ............................................. 1885
52.55. pg_transform .............................................. 1886
52.56. pg_trigger ................................................ 1886
52.57. pg_ts_config .............................................. 1888
52.58. pg_ts_config_map .......................................... 1888
52.59. pg_ts_dict ................................................ 1889
52.60. pg_ts_parser .............................................. 1889
52.61. pg_ts_template ............................................ 1890
52.62. pg_type ................................................... 1890
52.63. pg_user_mapping ........................................... 1896
52.64. System Views .............................................. 1896
52.65. pg_available_extensions ................................... 1897
52.66. pg_available_extension_versions ........................... 1897
xvi
PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
52.67. pg_config ................................................. 1898
52.68. pg_cursors ................................................ 1898
52.69. pg_file_settings .......................................... 1899
52.70. pg_group .................................................. 1900
52.71. pg_hba_file_rules ......................................... 1900
52.72. pg_indexes ................................................ 1900
52.73. pg_locks .................................................. 1901
52.74. pg_matviews ............................................... 1903
52.75. pg_policies ............................................... 1904
52.76. pg_prepared_statements .................................... 1904
52.77. pg_prepared_xacts ......................................... 1905
52.78. pg_publication_tables ..................................... 1905
52.79. pg_replication_origin_status .............................. 1906
52.80. pg_replication_slots ...................................... 1906
52.81. pg_roles .................................................. 1907
52.82. pg_rules .................................................. 1908
52.83. pg_seclabels .............................................. 1909
52.84. pg_sequences .............................................. 1909
52.85. pg_settings ............................................... 1910
52.86. pg_shadow ................................................. 1912
52.87. pg_stats .................................................. 1912
52.88. pg_tables ................................................. 1914
52.89. pg_timezone_abbrevs ....................................... 1915
52.90. pg_timezone_names ......................................... 1915
52.91. pg_user ................................................... 1915
52.92. pg_user_mappings .......................................... 1916
52.93. pg_views .................................................. 1916
53. 前端/后端协议 ..................................................... 1917
53.1. 概述 ....................................................... 1917
53.2. 消息流 ..................................................... 1918
53.3. SASL认证 ................................................... 1929
53.4. 流复制协议 ................................................. 1930
53.5. 逻辑流复制协议 ............................................. 1936
53.6. 消息数据类型 ............................................... 1937
53.7. 消息格式 ................................................... 1937
53.8. 错误和通知消息域 ........................................... 1953
53.9. 逻辑复制消息格式 ........................................... 1955
53.10. 自协议2.0以来的变化总结 ................................... 1959
54. PostgreSQL编码习惯 ................................................ 1961
54.1. 格式化 ..................................................... 1961
54.2. 在服务器中报告错误 ......................................... 1961
54.3. 错误消息风格指导 ........................................... 1964
54.4. 其他编码习惯 ............................................... 1968
55. 本国语言支持 ...................................................... 1970
55.1. 给翻译者 ................................................... 1970
55.2. 给编程者 ................................................... 1972
56. 编写一个过程语言处理器 ............................................ 1975
57. 编写一个外部数据包装器 ............................................ 1978
57.1. 外部数据包装器函数 ......................................... 1978
57.2. 外部数据包装器回调例程 ..................................... 1978
57.3. 外部数据包装器助手函数 ..................................... 1990
57.4. 外部数据包装器查询规划 ..................................... 1991
57.5. 外部数据包装器中的行锁定 ................................... 1993
58. 编写一种表采样方法 ................................................ 1994
58.1. 采样方法支持函数 ........................................... 1994
59. 编写一个自定义扫描提供者 .......................................... 1997
59.1. 创建自定义扫描路径 ......................................... 1997
59.2. 创建自定义扫描计划 ......................................... 1998
xvii
PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
59.3. 执行自定义扫描 ............................................. 1999
60. 遗传查询优化器 .................................................... 2001
60.1. 将查询处理看成是一个复杂的优化问题 ......................... 2001
60.2. 遗传算法 ................................................... 2001
60.3. PostgreSQL 中的遗传查询优化(GEQO) ........................ 2002
60.4. 进一步阅读 ................................................. 2003
61. 索引访问方法接口定义 .............................................. 2004
61.1. 索引的基本 API 结构 ....................................... 2004
61.2. 索引访问方法函数 ........................................... 2006
61.3. 索引扫描 ................................................... 2011
61.4. 索引锁定考虑 ............................................... 2012
61.5. 索引唯一性检查 ............................................. 2013
61.6. 索引开销估计函数 ........................................... 2014
62. 通用WAL 记录 ..................................................... 2017
63. B-树索引 .......................................................... 2018
63.1. 简介 ....................................................... 2018
63.2. B-树操作符类的行为 ......................................... 2018
63.3. B-树支持函数 ............................................... 2019
63.4. 实现 ....................................................... 2020
64. GiST 索引 ........................................................ 2021
64.1. 简介 ....................................................... 2021
64.2. 内建操作符类 ............................................... 2021
64.3. 可扩展性 ................................................... 2022
64.4. 实现 ....................................................... 2030
64.5. 示例 ....................................................... 2030
65. SP-GiST索引 ....................................................... 2032
65.1. 简介 ....................................................... 2032
65.2. 内建操作符类 ............................................... 2032
65.3. 可扩展性 ................................................... 2032
65.4. 实现 ....................................................... 2039
65.5. 例子 ....................................................... 2040
66. GIN 索引 ......................................................... 2041
66.1. 简介 ....................................................... 2041
66.2. 内建操作符类 ............................................... 2041
66.3. 可扩展性 ................................................... 2041
66.4. 实现 ....................................................... 2044
66.5. GIN 提示和技巧 ............................................. 2044
66.6. 限制 ....................................................... 2045
66.7. 例子 ....................................................... 2045
67. BRIN 索引 ........................................................ 2046
67.1. 简介 ....................................................... 2046
67.2. 内建操作符类 ............................................... 2046
67.3. 可扩展性 ................................................... 2047
68. 数据库物理存储 .................................................... 2051
68.1. 数据库文件布局 ............................................. 2051
68.2. TOAST ...................................................... 2053
68.3. 空闲空间映射 ............................................... 2055
68.4. 可见性映射 ................................................. 2055
68.5. 初始化分支 ................................................. 2055
68.6. 数据库页面布局 ............................................. 2056
69. 系统目录声明和初始内容 ............................................ 2059
69.1. 系统目录声明规则 ........................................... 2059
69.2. 系统目录初始数据 ........................................... 2060
69.3. BKI文件格式 ................................................ 2063
69.4. BKI命令 .................................................... 2064
69.5. 自举BKI文件的结构 .......................................... 2065
69.6. BKI例子 .................................................... 2065
70. 规划器如何使用统计信息 ............................................ 2066
xviii
PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
70.1. 行估计例子 ................................................. 2066
70.2. 多变量统计例子 ............................................. 2071
70.3. 规划器统计和安全 ........................................... 2072
VIII. 附录 ................................................................. 2074
A. PostgreSQL错误代码 ................................................. 2080
B. 日期/时间支持 ...................................................... 2088
B.1. 日期/时间输入解释 ........................................... 2088
B.2. 处理无效或不明确的时间戳 .................................... 2089
B.3. 日期/时间关键词 ............................................. 2090
B.4. 日期/时间配置文件 ........................................... 2090
B.5. 单位的历史 .................................................. 2092
C. SQL关键词 .......................................................... 2094
D. SQL 符合性 ........................................................ 2118
D.1. 已支持特性 .................................................. 2119
D.2. 未支持特性 .................................................. 2135
E. 版本说明 ........................................................... 2149
E.1. 版本11.2 .................................................... 2149
E.2. 版本11.1 .................................................... 2154
E.3. 版本11 ...................................................... 2155
E.4. 先前的版本 .................................................. 2173
F. 额外提供的模块 ..................................................... 2174
F.1. adminpack ................................................... 2174
F.2. amcheck ..................................................... 2175
F.3. auth_delay .................................................. 2178
F.4. auto_explain ................................................ 2178
F.5. bloom ....................................................... 2180
F.6. btree_gin ................................................... 2184
F.7. btree_gist .................................................. 2184
F.8. citext ...................................................... 2185
F.9. cube ........................................................ 2187
F.10. dblink ..................................................... 2191
F.11. dict_int ................................................... 2220
F.12. dict_xsyn .................................................. 2220
F.13. earthdistance .............................................. 2222
F.14. file_fdw ................................................... 2223
F.15. fuzzystrmatch .............................................. 2225
F.16. hstore ..................................................... 2228
F.17. intagg ..................................................... 2234
F.18. intarray ................................................... 2235
F.19. isn ........................................................ 2237
F.20. lo ......................................................... 2241
F.21. ltree ...................................................... 2242
F.22. pageinspect ................................................ 2248
F.23. passwordcheck .............................................. 2254
F.24. pg_buffercache ............................................. 2255
F.25. pgcrypto ................................................... 2256
F.26. pg_freespacemap ............................................ 2267
F.27. pg_prewarm ................................................. 2268
F.28. pgrowlocks ................................................. 2269
F.29. pg_stat_statements ......................................... 2270
F.30. pgstattuple ................................................ 2275
F.31. pg_trgm .................................................... 2279
F.32. pg_visibility .............................................. 2284
F.33. postgres_fdw ............................................... 2285
F.34. seg ........................................................ 2290
F.35. sepgsql .................................................... 2293
F.36. spi ........................................................ 2300
F.37. sslinfo .................................................... 2302
xix
PostgreSQL 11.2 手册
F.38. tablefunc .................................................. 2303
F.39. tcn ........................................................ 2312
F.40. test_decoding .............................................. 2313
F.41. tsm_system_rows ............................................ 2314
F.42. tsm_system_time ............................................ 2314
F.43. unaccent ................................................... 2315
F.44. uuid-ossp .................................................. 2316
F.45. xml2 ....................................................... 2318
G. 额外提供的程序 ..................................................... 2323
G.1. 客户端应用 .................................................. 2323
G.2. 服务器应用 .................................................. 2329
H. 外部项目 ........................................................... 2333
H.1. 客户端接口 .................................................. 2333
H.2. 管理工具 .................................................... 2333
H.3. 过程语言 .................................................... 2334
H.4. 扩展 ........................................................ 2334
I. 源代码仓库 ......................................................... 2335
I.1. 通过Git得到源码 ............................................. 2335
J. 文档 ............................................................... 2336
J.1. DocBook ..................................................... 2336
J.2. 工具集 ...................................................... 2336
J.3. 编译文档 .................................................... 2338
J.4. 文档创作 .................................................... 2339
J.5. 样式指导 .................................................... 2339
K. 首字母缩写词 ....................................................... 2342
参考书目 ................................................................... 2348
Index ...................................................................... 2350

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